Author: Syed Fazal Jalil, Maria Arshad, Attya Bhatti, Jamil Ahmad, Fazal Akbar4 , Shahid Ali4 and Peter John2
Publishing Date: 2016
Volume: 29 Issue: 2
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the synovitis of both small and large joints, which may lead to the destruction of cartilage and bones causing significant disabilities due to erosion of bones surfaces, if left untreated. It is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease having contribution of both genetic (50-60%) and environmental factors. The unawareness of general public might be a contributing factor in the high prevalence rate of RA world-wide. This review article focuses on the causing factors (genetics and environmental) involved in this devastating disease. We also gave brief overview of the treatment options and animal models of RA. The literature was reviewed using mesh terms in PubMed search ”etiology of RA, genetics of RA, environmental factors in RA, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in RA”. The data was thoroughly reviewed and comprehensive information was extracted to help the readers in improving understanding towards the mechanisms, which trigger the outcomes of RA. The more we increase awareness about RA, the better we manage this disease and hence can improve life style and socio-economic status.
KEYWORDS: Rheumatoid Arthritis, etiology, genetic factors, environmental factors.