Author: Barkatullah, Muhammad Ibrar, Naveed Muhammad, Ajmal Khan, Shahid Ali Khan, Salman Zafar , Samin Jan, Nadia Riaz, Zain Ullah, Umar Farooq and Javid Hussain
Publishing Date: 2017
Volume 30 Issue 2
The pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigations on the leaf, stem bark, and fruit of Zanthoxylum armatum were carried out. Macroscopic study of leaf, stem bark, and fruit of Z. armatum revealed some of the characteristic features like size, shape, color, odor and taste of the crude drug. Distinguishing fragments were identified from the powder drug. Leaf, bark, and fruit powder of this plant have higher values of total, acid insoluble, and water soluble ash as compared to the powder of this plant exhausted with ethanol and n- hexane. Extraction values in methanol were highest for leaves (20.10%) and fruit (11%), while bark showed highest value in chloroform (8.5%). The extractive values varied among other parts with different solvents. Fluorescence analysis of the Z. Armatum leaf, stem bark, and fruit powder with various reagents showed characteristic coloration at day and under UV light. Quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many bioactive constituents in leaves, such as alkaloids (15.60±0.10 mg/g), sterols (71.60±0.10mg/g), saponins (21.57±0.12mg/g), tannins (34.43±0.21mg/g), phenols (11.66±0.33mg/g) and flavonoids (13.68±0.66mg/g). Alkaloids (19.60±0.10mg/g), sterols (33.83±0.29mg/g), saponins (14.78±0.10mg/g), tannins (28.62±0.13mg/g), phenols (16.48±1.33mg/g) and flavonoids (18.33±1.22mg/g) were reported form the bark, while fruits were reported to have alkaloids (25.07±0.21mg/g), sterols (164.92±0.14mg/g), saponins (28.60±0.10mg/g), tannins (35.5±0.5mg/g), phenols (21.68±0.44mg/g) and flavonoids (22.8±1.33mg/g). Z. armatum is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for various ailments. This study will be helpful in the future pharmacognostic standardization of this important plant.
KEYWORDS: Zanthoxylum, pharmacognostic, organoleptic evaluation, extra active values.