Author: Ergün PEHLİVAN, Fadime TANER

Publishing Date: 2006

E-ISSN: 2147-9364

Volume 21 Issue 1_2


In this study, the effects of partical size and operating pressure in small reactor of hazelnut shell on the yield of liquid fuel produced from thermochemical treatment in a high pressure and temperature (HP/HT) reactor. Dried samples were ground and different size particals screening were used for the further experiments.. The aqueous suspensions of the samples (20 % solid by mass) have been treated either with NaOH (% 10 by mass of the solid) at 648 K, to liquefy in a 25mL high pressure and temperature (HP/HT) small reactor, mixing manually and heating in molten salt bath, by starting with 1 MPa initial nitrogen (inert) gas pressure directly or after pretreatment with microwave (MW) for 15, 30 and 60 minutes or after pretreatment of the mixture on a hot plate at boiling temperature of water under reflux. The reaction mixtures have been seperated into aqueous phases and solid-oil phases by filtering or by extracting the solid-oil phases with acetone or dichlorometane for 8h by using soxhlet apparatus and then separating aqueous phase from solvent extractables by separatory funnell. The amount of liquid fuel obtained after evaporating the solvents in rotary evaporator was determined gravimetrically.. The solid and liquid products were analyzed to determine moisture, ash, volatile matter, and higher heating values according to Standard Methods. It can be concluded that optimum experimental conditions in liquefaction of hazelnut shell are 850-600 µm particle size.In different liquefaction conditions, different liquefaction performance and different pressure variations in terms of time were determined. On the other hand, much more liquefaction performance can be obtained in various liquefaction conditions as linear and near linear pressure variations in terms of time.

Key Words: Hazelnut shell; HP/HT small reactor; liquefaction, partical size, inner pressure in small reactor; yield of liquefaction.

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