Cellular structure and molecular functions of plants, animals, bacteria, and viruses

Author: Hamid Kheyrodin, Raheba Jami, Fazal UR Rehman

Publishing Date: 2022

E-ISSN: 2823-2550

Volume: 2

Issue: 1

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55705/cmbr.2022.330941.1021


Plant cells are the basic unit of life in organisms of the kingdom Plantae. These organisms as eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus along with particular structures called organelles that perform various functions. The plant cell wall can provide a structural framework to support plant growth and defense the cells against various viral and bacterial pathogens. The cell wall can retain flexibility, also when subjected to developmental, biotic, abiotic stimuli, and stresses it can be efficiently remodeled in response. Genes encoding enzymes are able to fabricate or hydrolyze substances of the plant cell wall exhibit differential expression when subjected to different stresses, suggesting they may facilitate stress tolerance such as heavy metals, dust accumulation, and salty medium through changes in cell composition wall. Bacteria are small single-celled organisms that get the nutrients they need from their environment. Sometimes, this environment can be your child or any other living thing. Bacteria are very small and cannot be seen under a microscope. Bacteria help the digestive system and prevent harmful bacteria from entering the human body as well as some other bacteria are also applied to produce drugs and vaccines. A cell wall as the non-living component can cover the outmost layer of a cell. According to the type of organism, the cell envelope has a different composition. The cell envelope separates the interior contents of the cell from the exterior environment. In addition, it provides shape, support, and protection to the cell and its organelles. However, this cellular component is present exclusively in eukaryotic plants, fungi, and a few prokaryotic organisms. Compounds found in plant cells are absent in animal cells, and DNA base sequences reflect this. Moreover, plant DNA is often larger than animal DNA. In this review, we concluded that the differences between plant and animal DNA defendant on the sequence of bases in the helix.

Key Words: Cell wall, Bacterial structure, Fungi, Eukaryotic cells, Prokaryotic cells, DNA