Author: Shirin Ahmad
Publishing Date: 2022
Systemic bacterial and fungal infections in recent years due to the increasing number of debilitating diseases immune system such as AIDS, blood malignancies, overdose, corticosteroid drugs, and broad-spectrum antibiotics has been raised. There is a prevalence of acute and subsequent candida infections with drug-resistance properties such as fluconazole. Due to the prevalence and spread of fungal and bacterial diseases, the effort to find treatments has increased more than before. The use of plant compounds for the therapy of fungal and bacterial diseases is effective due to their unique biocompatible and bioavailable. The trend toward new antifungal and antibacterial agents being introduced to the market remains small, while resistance to many antibiotics is emerging, especially in patients receiving long-term treatment. Considering the enormous antimicrobial potentials of natural compounds isolated from plants and endophytes and screening of new antibiotics for various pharmaceutical applications as an alternative source remains largely unknown. Endophytes and medicinal plant species have main primary and secondary metabolites suitable to hindrance or inactivation of pathogens. Recently, various studies about the antibacterial and antifungal activities of these metabolites have been reported. For this purpose, in this review, antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytes of Pestalotiopsis genus and medicinal plant species of Zingiber and Hydnora genera have been discussed according to recent studies.
Key Words: Antimicrobial activities, natural compounds, primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, drug-resistance