Author: Muhammad Shahid, Fazal Subhan, Gowhar Ali, Ihsan Ullah, Javaid Alam, Sami Ullah and Khalid Rauf
Publishing Date: 2017
Volume 30 Issue 6
Opioid addiction is associated with oxidative cell injury in neuronal cells. In this study, Bacopa monnieri (L.), a reputed nootropic plant, was evaluated against morphine-induced histopathological changes in the cerebellum of rats. B. monnieri methanolic extract (mBME) (40 mg/kg, p.o) and ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg, i.p) were administered two hours before morphine (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 14 and 21 days. The in vitro antioxidant activity of mBME was determined by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Morphine produced vacuolization of basket and stellate cells and reduced the size of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum after 14 days. However, treatment for 21 days was associated with severe shrinkage of Purkinje cells with loss of their characteristic flask-shaped appearance as well as degeneration of basket, stellate and granule cells. Pretreatment with mBME and ascorbic acid for 14 and 21 days attenuated the morphine-induced histopathological changes in the cerebellum. The EC50 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay of mBME (39.06 µg/mL) as compared to ascorbic acid (30.25 µg/mL) and BHT (34.34 µg/mL) revealed that mBME strongly scavenged the free-radicals and thus possessed an efficient antioxidant propensity. These results concluded that B. monnieri having strong antioxidant activity exerted a protective effect against morphineinduced cerebellar toxicity.
Keywords: Opioid addiction, opioid-induced neurotoxicity, cerebellar damage, oxidative stress, brahmi, antioxidant.