Author: Rubina Parween , Kanwal Nazim , Darakhshan Ara , Farah Kishwer and Shahid Shaukat

Publishing Date: 2018

E-ISSN: 1011-601X

Volume 31 Issue 2


This work designed to investigate the physico-chemical properties (pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, DO and specific gravity) and level of essential heavy metals (Fe, Cu and Zn) and deleterious metal (Cd) were analyzed in fresh bovine milk samples available for the consumers of Malir District, Karachi. Results of most of the samples revealed that the magnitude of conductivity below the range of reference. The concentrations of metals were determined after wet digestion of samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ranges of average concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd were found as 0.262-1.104mg/l, 0.001-2.740mg/l, 2.800-5.600mg/l and 0.001-0.034mg/l in identical order. Approximately 54% samples were noticed as highly contaminated with Cd.

Keywords: Malir District, fresh bovine milk, physico-chemical characteristics, essential and non-essential elements, cluster analysis

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